Type or paste a DOI name into the determinants of organizational structure pdf box. O psychology is one of the 15 recognized specialties in professional psychology in the United States. Organizational psychology is one of nine areas of specialist endorsement for psychology practice in Australia.
O psychology was paralleled in the US, the UK, Australia, Germany, the Netherlands, and eastern European countries such as Romania. Instead of viewing performance differences as human “errors”, Cattell was one of the first to recognize the importance of differences among individuals as a way of better understanding work behavior. O psychology originated in research on individual differences, assessment, and the prediction of work performance. Industrial psychology crystallized during World War I, in response to the need to rapidly assign new troops to duty. Scott and Bingham volunteered to help with the testing and placement of more than a million army recruits.
After the War, the growing industrial base in the US was a source of momentum for what was then called industrial psychology. Private industry set out to emulate the successful testing of army personnel. Mental ability testing soon became commonplace in the work setting. Elton Mayo found that rest periods improved morale and reduced turnover in a Philadelphia textile factory.
The industrial psychology division of the former American Association of Applied Psychology became a division within APA, becoming Division 14 of APA. It was initially called the Industrial and Business Psychology Division. In 1962, the name was changed to the Industrial Psychology Division. In 1973, it was renamed again, this time to the Division of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. The name change of the division from “industrial psychology” to “industrial and organizational psychology” reflected the shift in the work of industrial psychologists who had originally addressed work behavior from the individual perspective, examining performance and attitudes of individual workers. Group behavior in the workplace became a worthy subject of study. There was a focus on fairness and validity in selection efforts as well as in the job analyses that undergirded selection instruments.