This page is under perpetual construction! It was last updated January 11, 2018. This list is meant to happy days beckett full text pdf, not intimidate.
Use it as a touchstone for important concepts and vocabulary that we will cover during the term. EARLY MODERN ENGLISH: Modern English covers the time-frame from about 1450 or so up to the present day. EASE OF ARTICULATION: The linguistic concern for how certain sound changes in words might be motivated by how easy or hard the word is to pronounce. EAST GERMANIC: A sub-branch of the Germanic language family. Gothic was an East Germanic language.
The British responded by using heavy cannon to flatten the buildings in rebel hands. ECHOIC WORDS: Another term for onomatopoeia, i. A type of enallage in which an author or poet omits essential grammatical elements to create a poetic or artful effect. ECLIPSIS MUTATION: See discussion under mutation. A short poem or short section of a longer poem in the form of a dialogue or soliloquy–especially one with pastoral elements. The term was first applied to Virgil’s pastoral poems, but the term covers Renaissance imitators as well. A passage of literature or poetry in which the writer disrupts the narrative and writes a lengthy passage describing, representing, or “translating” another type of art such as a painting, a piece of architecture or sculpture, or music.
This ecphrasis is the “translation” of one type of non-verbal art into words. CRITURE: In deconstruction, writing as a social institution and as a group of inter-related texts. This results in textuality–a term for the idea that no single literary work can be studied as an autonomous object, but that each text is part of of a larger, culturally endorsed collection of texts, conventions, codes, and meanings. EDH: Another spelling of the word eth. EIRON: In Greek comedy, the eiron was a stock male character known for his ironic understatement. This character deliberately pretended to be less clever than he actually was, yet his superior verbal skills and cunning allowed him to win out over braggarts and bullies.
In Greek thinking, ekstasos is a non-rational state of mind that people achieve by losing themselves in an experience–becoming so engrossed in a sensation or a moment that one forgets about one’s ego, one’s life, and all other considerations beyond that emotion or feeling. ELECT, THE: John Calvin’s Puritan doctrines emphasized God’s prescience and omnipotence and de-emphasized human free will. More broadly, elegy came to mean any poem dealing with the subject-matter common to the early Greco-Roman elegies–complaints about love, sustained formal lamentation, or somber meditations. The elegy, much like the classical epic, typically begins with an invocation of the muse, and then continues with allusions to classical mythology. The poem usually contains a poetic speaker who uses the first person. The speaker raises questions about justice, fate, or providence. The poet digresses about the conditions of his own time or his own situation.
The digression allows the speaker to move beyond his original emotion or thinking to a higher level of understanding. The conclusion of the poem provides consolation or insight into the speaker’s situation. In Christian elegies, the lyric reversal often moves from despair and grief to joy when the speaker realizes that death or misfortune is but a temporary barrier separating one from the bliss of eternity. The poem tends to be longer than a lyric but not as long as an epic. The mourner charges with negligence the nymphs or guardians of the shepherd who failed to preserve him from death. Appropriate mourners appear to lament the shepherd’s death.
Post-Renaissance poets often include an elaborate passage in which flowers appear to deck the hearse or grave, with various flowers having symbolic meaning appropriate to the scene. Famous elegies include Milton’s “Lycidas,” Shelley’s “Adonais,” and Arnold’s “Thyrsis. Closely related to the pastoral elegy, the dirge or threnody is shorter than the elegy and often represented as a text meant to be sung aloud. The term monody refers to any dirge or elegy presented as the utterance of a single speaker. ELEMENTS, THE FOUR: The alchemical theory that all matter was composed of four components: earth, air, fire, and water. For instance, earth was cold and dry.
Fire was hot and dry, and so on. If the audience did not feel pity for the tragic hero in a play, or feel fear at his downfall, the play failed in its purpose. ELF-SHOT: In British folklore, a mythical weapon used by wicked elves or invisible spirits to cause illness. As Leslie Donovan and Richard Scott Nokes summarize it, in neolithic times, Celtic hunters in Britain typically flaked flint to create their arrowheads. In poetry, when the poet takes a word that ends in a vowel, and a following word that begins with a vowel, and blurs them together to create a single syllable, the result is an elision.
ELIZABETHAN: Occurring in the time of Queen Elizabeth I’s reign, from 1558-1603. Shakespeare wrote his early works during the Elizabethan period. This term is often juxtaposed with the Jacobean Period, the time following Elizabeth’s reign when King James I ruled, from 1603 to 1625. ELLESMERE MANUSCRIPT: Usually referred to as “the Ellesmere,” this book is one of the most important surviving fifteenth-century manuscripts of Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales.
Philip Sidney uses this technique in this line from Arcadia: “Hear you this soul, cOMPLETENESS: The second aspect of Aristotle’s requirements for a tragedy. Thin when we first meet her. A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry, he also refers to private symbols as tokens. CONFLATION: In its more restricted literary sense, he is linking its name to a line by the poet Browning, the boater Willie sports at a “rakish angle” places his character clearly in the music hall tradition as does his formal wear in the second half of the play. The Ritual of Human Teché in Happy Days’ in Burkman, “Blood will have blood. The sandwich gained its name from its inventor, typically the historical person’s name forms one of the rhymes. His political enemies.