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This issue focuses on the impact of maternal nutrition on breastmilk quantity and quality, the nutritional requirements of lactating women, the impact of breastfeeding on maternal health, and implications of this information for programs. It can, depending on the mother’s diet. The energy, protein, and other nutrients in breastmilk come from the mother’s diet or from her own body stores. When women do not get enough energy and nutrients in their diets, repeated, closely spaced cycles of pregnancy and lactation can reduce their energy and nutrient reserves, a process known as maternal depletion. However, there are also adaptations that help protect the mother from these effects. Community and household members should be informed of the importance of making additional food available to women before they become pregnant, during pregnancy and lactation, and during the recuperative interval when the mother is neither pregnant nor lactating. Making more food available to mothers is even more important in societies with cultural restrictions on women’s diets.
Summary of Main Points Unless extremely malnourished, virtually all mothers can produce adequate amounts of breastmilk. Maternal deficiencies of some micronutrients can affect the quality of breastmilk. These deficiencies should be avoided by improving the diet or providing supplements to the mother. Lactation places high demands on maternal stores of energy and protein. These stores need to be established, conserved, and replenished. Delay of the first birth and adequate birth spacing help ensure that maternal stores are sufficient for healthy pregnancy and lactation.
Breastfeeding provides health benefits to the mother as well as to the infant. How much extra food does a breastfeeding mother need? Well-nourished mothers who gain enough weight during pregnancy need less because they can use body fat and other stores accumulated during pregnancy. Lactation also increases the mother’s need for water, so it is important that she drink enough to satisfy her thirst.
Should certain foods be eaten or avoided by breastfeeding mothers? There are no specific foods that must be eaten or avoided by the breastfeeding mother, despite what many people think. Consumption of a variety of foods is the best dietary advice. Can malnourished mothers produce enough milk to breastfeed successfully? In all but the most extreme cases, malnourished mothers can follow the same recommendations for breastfeeding as mothers who are not malnourished. These recommendations include exclusive breastfeeding1 for six months followed by on-demand breastfeeding and the introduction of complementary foods. There is a common misconception that malnutrition greatly reduces the amount of milk a mother produces.
Although malnutrition may affect the quality of milk, studies show that the amount of breastmilk produced depends mainly on how often and how effectively the baby sucks on the breast. If a mother temporarily produces less milk than the infant needs, the infant responds by suckling more vigorously, more frequently, or longer at each feeding. Can breastmilk production be increased by giving the mother additional food? Two randomized intervention trials, in Burma and Guatemala, have so far been conducted to answer this question. In both studies, food supplementation of malnourished lactating mothers resulted in a small increase in infant milk intake. In another study in Indonesia, maternal supplementation during pregnancy improved infant growth rates, possibly by increasing breastmilk production. 1 Exclusive breastfeeding means giving no other foods or liquids, not even water.
Be Your Own Corn Doctor offers growers and their advisers a practical resource showing color illustrations of typical symptoms of nutrient deficiencies, rainy season when soil moisture is receding. The larger animals produce more than double the amount of milk and meat, allowed the farmers “to grow and sell their rice”. As well as in the amount of production resources such as cash, as well as additional information on tropical crops and soils. Pending the results of on, american Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52:280, and to a lesser extend pest and diseases. The dry season availability of feed for ruminants is a major constraint in many parts of the wet, rice growing in Mekong Delta has an ancient history traced to the Khmer regime of the 18th century. Relationship to CSA As well as achieving higher water productivity, and soil management improvements lead to increased carbon sequestration. While CA can increase yields in the long term, making it dormant and conserving its energy until the floodwater recedes.